Despite maintaining a very low level of activity since its last eruption in 1801, and being unusually inactive for the last 2,000 years, Hualālai is still considered active, and is expected to erupt again some time within the next century. Mauna Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, has erupted 33 times since 1843. It is theorized that, in the near past, Hualālai has had synchronous eruptions with both Mauna Loa and Kilauea. [20], Today, the coast west of Hualālai is a popular location for vacation resorts, since the rain shadow of the mountain causes many sunny days. Although Hualālai does experience several magnitude-4 earthquakes per year, these are attributed to a deep source off the coast of the north-western rift zone and are not related to the movement of magma. This eruption produced very fluid alkalic basalt lava flows that entered the ocean off the western tip of Hawaiʻi island. [6], Lava attributed to a shield-stage Hualālai has been found just offshore of the volcano's northwest rift zone. Tholeiitic basalt, indicative of the submarine subphase of the volcano's construction, has been found in wells driven into the volcano at a depth of 75 ft (23 m). Spatter deposits, ʻaʻā and pahoehoe basalt lava flows. The agency plans to add another seismometer and three more sensors to help monitor activity. [6][7] There are over 100 cinder and spatter cones arranged along these rift zones. The Kona International Airport is built atop the larger of these two flows. The Hawaiian Islands are at the southeast end of a chain of volcanoes that began to form more than 70 million years ago. [5] Hualālai's structure is denoted by three rift zones: a well-developed one approximately 50° to the northwest, a moderately developed one to the southeast, and a poorly developed one trending northwards about 3 mi (5 km) east of the summit. A shield volcano has a broad shape due to having been formed by multiple lava flows. [20], Kamakahonu, Holualoa Bay, and Keauhou Bay were favored retreats of Hawaiian royalty long before the westernization of Hawaii. Its peak stands 8,271 feet (2,521 m) above sea level. [19] Hualālai averages 18.27 in (46 cm) of rainfall per year. [29] The volcano is populated by many birds and animals;[30] the coast in particular attracts many fish and sea-dependent animals, such as the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) and the black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus). About 90 percent of the volcano is covered with lava flows less than 1,100 years in age. Hualālai is estimated to have risen above sea level about 300,000 years ago. The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is responsible for monitoring six active volcanoes on the Islands of Hawai‘i and Maui. Hualālai (pronounced [huwəˈlaːlɐi] in Hawaiian) is an active volcano on the island of Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian Islands. The Puʻu Waʻa Waʻa forest sanctuary was established in 1992 (along with the Laupahoehoe sister reserve on Mauna Kea) as a testbed for long term ecological research about Hawaiian moist forest and dry forest biomes, and lies within a mile of the volcano's summit on its northwestern flank. Haleakalā, the only active volcano on the Island of Maui, erupted most recently between about 600 and 400 years ago. Each island is made of one or more volcanoes, which first erupted on the floor of the Pacific Ocean and emerged above sea level only after countless eruptions. [24], Much of the Kona coffee crop grows on Hualālai's western slope near the town of Holualoa. [28], Although some of Hualālai is bare volcanic rock, most of it is covered by some form of vegetation. Although it is called kekaha ʻaʻole wai (lands without water), the rugged volcanic terrain attracted much sea life, making it an appealing place to settle. The basalts erupted around Hekla and Katla are very similar to Etna basalts too, and also very similar in eruption much more strombolian than hawaiian and very little or no pahoehoe. Shield Volcano Definition . There are two main attractions within the park: the Kaloko fishpond, an area of loko kuapa (rockwall fishponds) constructed of interlocking rocks across a natural embayment on the coast, and Honokōhau, a former extensive settlement on the south side of the park. The southern section of the reserve, closest to the summit, has been split into a bird sanctuary. Trachyte flows move more slowly than the typically "runny" Hawaiian lavas, a characteristic caused by its high (over 62%) silica composition (typical basalt is only 50% silica). The total output volume of the flow is estimated at over 300,000,000 m3 (0.072 cu mi). [14], Since 1991, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has maintained a seismic recording station 3 km (1.9 mi) east of Hualālai's summit to monitor the volcano. The most recent major activity at the volcano was in 1929, when an intense earthquake swarm rocked Hualālai, most likely caused by magmatic action near the volcano's peak. The big island of Hawaii is the largest of the current Hawaiian Islands and is made of five volcanoes (Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa and Kilauea). Located in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, it is an elongated dome built of lava eruptions from a central crater and from lines of craters extending along … [18] The Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park lies on the shore west of Hualālai, over the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement. Mauna Kea, the highest volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i, erupted most recently between about 6,000 and 4,500 years ago from at least seven separate summit-area vents, producing lava flows and cinder cones. [33][34] The Wai Aha spring reserve on the lower slopes of the mountain is somewhat swampy and is home to the flowering evergreen ōhiʻa (Metrosideros polymorpha), the woody climber ʻIeʻie (Freycinetia arborea), and a dense undergrowth of ʻAmaʻu (Sadleria cyatheoides).[33]. This type of volcano is formed as a result of lava flowing over a period of time. Hawaii Route 200 known as the Saddle Road, crosses the plateau north of Hualālai, where the Pohakuloa Training Area provides a remote training ground for the United States Army and United States Marine Corps. Kohala last erupted 60,000 years ago and Mauna Kea last erupted 3,500 years ago. The Island of Maui has one active volcano, Haleakalā, which has erupted at least 10 times during the past 1,000 years. [11] Hualālai entered the post-shield stage, the stage it is presently in, about 100,000 years ago. 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