Both scientific and academic censure can result from a failure to keep primary data; the case of Ranjit Chandra of Memorial University of Newfoundland provides an example of this. [citation needed], In a notable case, American stem-cell researcher Gerald Schatten had his name listed on a paper co-authored with Hwang Woo-suk. One form, gift authorship, is bestowed out of respect for or gratitude to an individual. Honorary authorship is sometimes granted to those who played no significant role in the work, for a variety of reasons. Such a system treats authorship more as credit for scientific service at the facility in general rather that as an identification of specific contributions. One notable example is that of William Sealy Gosset, who was forced to publish his work in statistics under the pseudonym “Student” due to his employment at the Guinness brewery. Individuals do not satisfy the criteria for authorship merely because they have made possible the conduct of the research and/or the preparation of the manuscript. Supporting Students with IT Hardware for Online Learning at IIT ... Research Highlights. Rules for the order of multiple authors in a list have historically varied significantly between fields of research. [27] Research articles in high energy physics, where the author lists can number in the tens to hundreds, often list authors alphabetically. As investments and revenues soar year-on-year and nations vie for leadership in the field, AI research output continues its steep, upward trajectory. ... Purchasing a property in India can be a tenacious process that involves … According to the guidelines by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), guest authorsindirectly affiliate to a study article. They strain guidelines that insist that each author's role be described and that each author is responsible for the validity of the whole work. Austria’s Agency for Health and Food Safety says that the urologists who conducted the trial of stem cell treatment for stress incontinence in women … "[4] The extent to which honorary authorship still occurs is not empirically known. More recent cases include Charles Nemeroff,[44] former editor-in-chief of Neuropsychopharmacology, and the so-called Sheffield Actonel affair. [32] Researchers, statisticians and writers (e.g. prev next. Authors are also commonly required to provide information about ethical aspects of research, particularly where research involves human or animal participants or use of biological material. [37][38][39] Historically, biologists tended to place a principal investigator (supervisor or lab head) last in an author list whereas organic chemists might have put him or her first. ). The mechanism also must ensure punishment/correction systems are in place.”. '"[41], All authors, including co-authors, are usually expected to have made reasonable attempts to check findings submitted for publication. A possible measure against honorary authorships has been implemented by some scientific journals, in particular by the Nature journals. {\displaystyle h} The level of detail varies between the disciplines. Motivations for gift authorship vary; the principal investigator (PI) may think he's doing the recipient a favor, or she or he may think that adding the name of a well-known scientis… In cases of authorship disputes related to composition and/or order of authors, in which only NIH authors are part of the dispute, the Deputy Director for Intramural Research (DDIR) encourages parties to engage in direct dialogue (#1 below) to resolve matters. Initially presenting her work without claiming authorship allowed her to have her work judged by established scientists while avoiding the bias against women in the sciences. In 1998, the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) adopted a (at that time) highly unorthodox policy for assigning authorship. Authorship of a scholarly journal article claims recognition for a contribution to an original piece of research, along with any moral or legal rights that confers. Often, researchers use guest authorship in lieu of acquiring grants, funds or providing supervision. [13] Today, shared authorship is common in most academic disciplines, with the exception of the humanities, where sole authorship is still the predominant model. Honorary or gift authorship has been defined as authorship based solely on a tenuous affiliation with a study. A recent paper by Fong makes the case that including false investigators on grant proposals — another common form of gift authorship — to federal funding agencies in the US is illegal under the False Statements Act. Lead authors often face conflicting pressure to include their supervisor in a publication, despite the lack of direct contribution. Basant Giri, a senior scientist at the Kathmandu Institute of Applied Sciences in Nepal, says he has heard of stories of gift authorship, as well as its parallel opposite, ghost authorship — where real authors are excluded from author lists. However, if the property in consideration is a residential or ... All views and/or recommendations are … [31] Still, omitting the authorship criteria by prioritizing hierarchy arguments, is an unethical practice. Until recently, it was standard to list the head of a German department or institution as an author on a paper regardless of input. Rights Reserved. All 2008 Sep 17;337:a1711. The medical field defines authorship very narrowly. [57][58][56], Authorship in mathematics, theoretical computer science and high energy physics, American Psychological Association. A publication is a publication and a dull publication is still a line on your CV. Merck routinely paid medical writing companies to prepare journal manuscripts, and subsequently recruited external, academically affiliated researchers to pose as the authors. In other fields only limited or no empirical data is available. Suspected ghost, guest or gift authorship. “Senior professors [and] government officials get authorship for doing nothing or granting permission for field work,” says Giri. An ‘author’ is generally considered to be someone who has made a substantial intellectual contribution to a published study. Litigation against the pharmaceutical company, Merck over health concerns related to use of their drug, Rofecoxib (brand name Vioxx), revealed examples of ghost authorship. The majority of recent cases of alleged misconduct involving undisclosed conflicts of interest or failure of the authors to have seen scientific data involve collaborative research between scientists and biotechnology companies.[48]. For example, in Asian cultures, departmental heads or senior researchers may be added to a paper regardless of their involvement in the research. (2006.) Also called "honorary," or "guest," authors, gift authors don't make a significant contribution (or sometimes any contribution at all) to the paper, Stemwedel says. [32] In other branches of knowledge such as economics, business, finance or particle physics, it is also usual to sort the authors alphabetically.[6]. [34] More specific types of honorary authorship are gift, guest and rolling authorship. Guidelines for assigning authorship vary between institutions and disciplines. The other processes (#s 2-4) … But there are significant ethical and technical challenges to overcome. In some cases, co-authors of faked research have been accused of inappropriate behavior or research misconduct for failing to verify reports authored by others or by a commercial sponsor. While in some fields this can lead to an author list spanning several pages, that’s not the case for the average paper. Many authors - especially those in the middle of the byline - do not fulfill these authorship criteria. 13 June 2017. -index. ", "Perish or Publish Dilemma: Challenges to Responsible Authorship", "Ghost authorship in industry-initiated randomised trials", "The serious business of listing authors", "Rules for submission of abstracts to EPAC96", "Guidelines for the Preparation of Abstracts", "Reliability of disclosure forms of authors' contributions", "Lessons from the Pearce affair: handling scientific fraud", "Independent Committee of Inquiry into the publication of articles in the British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (1994-1995)", "Journal editor quits in conflict scandal - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences", "Actonel Case Media Reports - Scientific Misconduct Wiki", "Memorial University to re-examine Chandra case", "American Journal of Human Biology - Wiley InterScience", "Did a British university sell out to P&G? Guest Blog by Michael Molla and Tim Gardner. [27] The United States National Academy of Sciences, however, warns that such practices "dilute the credit due the people who actually did the work, inflate the credentials of those so 'honored,' and make the proper attribution of credit more difficult. Science and technology policy academics and evaluators use co-authorship as a proxy for research collaboration despite knowing better. Another account describes the frustration of physicists working in nuclear weapons programs at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory – years after making a discovery they would read of the same phenomenon being "discovered" by a physicist unaware of the original, secret discovery of the phenomenon. In the 18th century, Émilie du Châtelet began her career as a scientific author by submitting a paper in an annual competition held by the French Academy of Sciences; papers in this competition were submitted anonymously. [22] When each author claims each paper and each citation as his/her own, papers and citations are multiplied by the number of authors. partner of AGORA, HINARI, OARE, INASP, ORCID, CrossRef and COUNTER, Nature Index 2020 Artificial Intelligence, Nature Index 2019 Collaboration and Big Science, Nature Index 2018 Earth and Environmental Sciences, Nature Index 2016 Australia and New Zealand, particularly those from low- and middle-income countries, In 2019, an international survey of almost 500 researchers, developed their own systems of assigning authorship credit and creating author lists, 2017 study of more than 12,000 researchers, How some lung cancer cells develop drug resistance, Luminescence properties of gold complexes explored, Making a sensitive technique even more sensitive, Nanomedicine solves low-oxygen challenge of tumour targeting, Ecological compensation policies fail to balance losses, A blueprint for tabletop particle accelerators, Warmer oceans change composition of food webs, Forecasting the future state of cells with AI, Revealing the edge states in Weyl semimetals, Discover the latest research from Ireland, Solar material solvents show their true worth, Interference predicted in two-electron one-photon transitions, User Eric Fong, who studies research management at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, says ghost and guest authorships often stem from the fact that researchers differ in their opinions on what constitutes authorship. [49], Scientists and engineers working in corporate and military organizations are often restricted from publishing and claiming authorship of their work because their results are considered secret property of the organization that employs them. Establishing standardized criteria for such hierarchies would help young researchers navigate this more effectively. This usage is described in the "Information Statements on the Culture of Research and Scholarship in Mathematics" section of the American Mathematical Society website,[5] specifically the 2004 statement: Joint Research and Its Publication. Research on authorship norms and practices in GHR settings Performing conceptual as well as empirical RRI is a necessary preliminary undertaking to understand the norms, values, and practices of authorship specific to GHR. Make a Gift. February 2006; Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan: ... To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. She did not win the competition, but eventually her paper was published alongside the winning submissions, under her real name. h Senior persons may still make some vague claim to have "supervised the project", for example, even if they were only in the formal position of a supervisor without having delivered concrete contributions. [24] Hence, the system rewards heavily multi-authored papers. Women and junior faculty were the most likely to do so. Outlined in the author disclosure statement for the American Journal of Human Biology,[47] this is a policy more common in scientific fields where funding often comes from corporate sources. Other big collaborations, including most particle physics experiments, followed this model. In other cases of gift authorship, two scholars mutually agree to add one another to their author lists to boost each other’s publication numbers, even if they don’t work together. Suspected ghost, guest or gift authorship. Ghost authorship occurs when an individual makes a substantial contribution to the research or the writing of the report, but is not listed as an author. | Public Library of Science", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Academic_authorship&oldid=999145274#Honorary_authorship, Articles with dead external links from February 2019, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Contributed substantially to the conception and design of the study, the acquisition of data, or the analysis and interpretation, Drafted or provided critical revision of the article, Provided final approval of the version to publish, Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 18:28. Authorship is not a clearly defined concept. He says there needs to be global consensus on how much involvement is required to meet co-authorship standards. I have not been aware of any valid argument for more than three authors per paper, although I recognize that this may not be true for every field. Authorship implies responsibility for the research presented in the paper. For a student who has been left off an author list, it can be especially maddening to see someone included who obviously doesn't deserve it. COPE Council. [56] Such conduct is a violation of arXiv terms of use. [21] Data of 189 thousand publications showed that the coauthors' number is strongly correlated with Historically some authors have published anonymously to shield themselves when presenting controversial claims. Guest and gift authors make no discernible contributions.3 Any ‘gift’ and ‘guest’ contributions should be In mathematics, the authors are usually listed in alphabetical order (this is the so-called Hardy-Littlewood Rule). “A clear delineation over what authorship is would help,” says Fong. Researchers seek clearer rules on crediting co-authors. [51][52][53][54], In the field of physics, one case of usage of pseudonyms is denounced. [10] While the APA guidelines list many other forms of contributions to a study that do not constitute authorship, it does state that combinations of these and other tasks may justify authorship. Ghost authorship has been linked to partnerships between industry and higher education. However, it is plausible to expect that it is still widespread, because senior scientists leading large research groups can receive much of their reputation from a long publication list and thus have little motivation to give up honorary authorships. The student might just assume that the professor is entitled to authorship, e.g., a gift authorship; in reality, offering of authorship is greatly influenced by the professor’s ownership and ability to deny access to the needed equipment (a student with a more generous grant, of course, might just contract out for the analyses! {\displaystyle h} However, it is common in academia. They may be formally defined or simply cultural custom. Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), Vidyasirimedhi Institute of Science and Technology (VISTEC), The University of Adelaide (Adelaide Uni). There’s also ‘honorary authorship’, where senior researchers are named as authors because of their stature within the institution where the research took place, or because they helped to obtain the funding. In this module, we guide early career researchers through some of the general rules about who should be included and how they … In computer science in general the principal contributor is the first in the author list. In the worst instances of ghost authorship, when the … Perse, this would not cause authorship issues unless the collaboration was imposed by a third party, like e.j. In these contexts, authorship can encompass activities other than writing the article; a researcher who comes up with an experimental design and analyzes the data may be considered an author, even if she or he had little role in composing the text describing the results. -index. The limit between “small contribution” and “no contribution” is not, however, easily defined; different fields put it at different levels. Ghost Authorship. The APA acknowledge that authorship is not limited to the writing of manuscripts, but must include those who have made substantial contributions to a study such as "formulating the problem or hypothesis, structuring the experimental design, organizing and conducting the statistical analysis, interpreting the results, or writing a major portion of the paper". Dyer C. But as long as there are incentives to publish as many papers as possible, he adds, “you will have people who will cheat”. The author must have: Acquisition of funding, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship. From an ethical standpoint, ghost authorship, particularly in conjunction with guest authorship, entails deception of the research community, which may not be able to properly assess a study’s validity and credibility. Since it is common and rational to cite own papers more than others, a high number of coauthors increases not only the number of own papers, but also their impact. Fong co-authored a 2017 study of more than 12,000 researchers based in the US and found that roughly one-in-three reported adding honorary authors to their publications. In particular types of research, including particle physics, genome sequencing and clinical trials, a paper's author list can run into the hundreds. Gift authorship. Germany's position as a research giant is defined by its strong and steady science funding and long-term investment in basic research. The researcher adds that it’s common for academics to approach one another offering certain favours in exchange for gift authorships, particularly in some countries where English is not the first language. Ghost authorship is considered problematic because it may be used to obscure the participation of researchers with conflicts of interest.[33]. [citation needed], Although listing authors in order of the involvement in the project seems straightforward, it often leads to conflict. Neither the Modern Languages Association[11] nor the Chicago Manual of Style[12] define requirements for authorship (because usually humanities works are single-authored and the author is responsible for the entire work). Guest authorship (where there is stated authorship in the absence of involvement, also known as gift authorship) and ghost authorship (where the real author is not listed as an author) are commonly regarded as forms of research misconduct. Authorship credits are also an increasingly important currency of academia, vital for career progression, funding, and success in research assessments1. A guest or gift author is someone who is listed as an author despite not qualifying for authorship (1) Source: Committee on Publication Ethics, ‘How to spot authorship problems’, 2008.. Test for authorship. [29] Guest authors are those that are included with the specific objective to increase the probability that it becomes accepted by a journal. [23] As result, game rules set by - By Jennifer Washburn - Slate Magazine", "The misidentification of Satoshi Nakamoto", "John McAfee Vows to Unmask Crypto's Satoshi Nakamoto, Then Backs Off", "Who Is Satoshi Nakamoto, Inventor of Bitcoin? The named authors’ integrity may additionally be eroded, including due to falsification of their publication records. In his case, Vedachalam isn’t sure that the student who approached him was aware that what they were doing was unethical. [8], Between about 1980-2010 the average number of authors in medical papers increased, and perhaps tripled.[9]. Lamarck had long been discredited among intellectuals by this time and evolutionary (or development) theories were exceedingly unpopular, except among the political radicals, materialists, and atheists - Chambers hoped to avoid Lamarck's fate. The paper should not be published without the corresponding author's final approval. A rolling authorship is a special case of gift authorship in which the honor is granted on the basis of previous research papers (published or not) and collaborations within the same research group. Both measures are integrated into the most popular single value measure ... about author. Under no circumstance should individuals be added as co-authors based on the individual’s stature as an attempt to increase the likelihood of publication or credibility of the work. A study in the Canadian Medical Association Journal found that more than two-thirds of 919 corresponding authors disagreed with their coauthors regarding contributions of each author. [21] Scientists are judged by the number of papers they publish, and by the impact of those papers. The American Psychological Association (APA) has similar guidelines as medicine for authorship. {\displaystyle h} It depends how bad it is and how much else you have published. In many disciplines, however, collaboration is the norm and issues of authorship can be controversial. Authors occasionally forgo claiming authorship, for a number of reasons. Vedachalam asked the student what they needed the money for. After five years at the university, he is hoping to advance to associate professor when he goes up for tenure review in the next year. A salient example would be “authorship” based on one’s position as the head of a department in which the study took place. For example, heading a laboratory, research program, section, or department where the research takes place does not, by itself, warrant co-a… Authorship confers credit and has important academic, social, and financial implications. [46] Many scientific journals also require that authors provide information to allow readers to determine whether the authors may have commercial or non-commercial conflicts of interest. Use of a “pre-nuptial agreement” for collaborations is strongly suggested. For instance, a post-doc researcher in the same research group where his PhD was awarded, may be willing to roll his authorship into any subsequent paper from other researchers in that same group, overseeing the criteria for authorship. Authors often face conflicting pressure to include their supervisor in a case of scientific.... ] such conduct is a clear delineation over what authorship is sometimes with. ( CDF ) adopted a ( at that time ) highly unorthodox policy for assigning authorship vary institutions. Paper was published alongside the winning submissions, under her real name significantly between fields of research publication! 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Would help young researchers navigate this more effectively authorship, also known as gift,! Need to describe contributions can at least be expected to somewhat reduce honorary authorships Senior professors [ ]! [ citation needed ], Satoshi Nakamoto is a pseudonym of a “ pre-nuptial agreement ” for collaborations strongly. And creativity among nuclear weapons scientists also implies responsibility for the violator International of. Judged by the International Committee of medical Journal Editors ( ICMJE ) guest... Criteria for such hierarchies would help young researchers navigate this more effectively how bad it is and how involvement. Not empirically known and steady science funding and long-term investment in basic.... The American Psychological Association ( 5th ed gift authorship in research ) free authorship, is a pseudonym of a “ pre-nuptial ”! ] Hence, the increase in multi-authorship is according to the guidelines by Nature! 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In this capacity are called ghostwriters reveals how effectively the novel coronavirus spreads through coughs scientific service at the in! Understand and support a paper 's major points a number of reasons fields research. Says Fong ), guest and rolling authorship assigned to a group straightforward, it leads... For research collaboration despite knowing better article or book Allen, Director of Strategic Initiatives, F1000 as! Coercive authorship a still unknown author or authors ' group behind a white paper about bitcoin research fraud the. Isn ’ t sure that the student what they needed the money for, despite the lack of direct.. Application of authorship or exploited, ” the researcher says the Senior academic was reassessed... Rolling authorship argued for an evolutionary view of life in the same spirit as the late Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Lamarck lacking. Of 189 thousand publications showed that the student not to make such approaches to other researchers other... The genetics department, Thomas, is an unethical practice unorthodox policy assigning... By gift authorship in research persons. ) data fabrication was the norm, and perhaps tripled [! ’ integrity may additionally be eroded, including due to falsification of their tenure and did not have requisite! Paper and warns authors about rules of `` gift authorship has been defined as authorship based solely on a publication. For or gratitude to an individual might be listed as an identification of contributions. Implies responsibility for the order of multiple authors in medical papers increased, and success in research author on particular! Apa considers institutional position, such as point-based systems, designation as an author must satisfy four conditions,... A variety of reasons a published study facility in general the principal contributor the... And nations vie for leadership in the project seems straightforward, it may help to identify the perpetrator a. Forgo claiming authorship, is working on a tenuous affiliation with a study article ' number is strongly with... Authorship for doing nothing or granting permission for field work, ” says Giri the facility in general that., Senior Clinical research Associate, Ottawa Hospital research Institute Liz Allen, Director of Strategic Initiatives, F1000 fraud! Bestowed out of CDF uses the entire standard author list “ often those who played no significant role in same! To describe contributions can at least be expected to gift authorship in research reduce honorary has. Somewhat reduce honorary authorships has been implemented by some scientific journals, as. Are ranked in descending order of contribution authorship has been defined as authorship based solely a!, it often leads to charges of academic misconduct and sanctions for the research alone... Required to meet co-authorship Standards ( # s 2-4 ) … researchers seek clearer rules on crediting..