[27], He was next engaged in a war with Gabii, one of the Latin cities, which had rejected the Latin treaty with Rome. [338][343] The Romans recovered Antioch by 253 AD,[344] and Emperor Valerian gathered an army and marched eastward to the Sassanid borders. [255], After Caesar's preliminary low-scale invasions of Britain,[256][257] the Romans invaded in force in 43 AD,[258] forcing their way inland through several battles against British tribes, including the Battle of the Medway,[258] the Battle of the Thames, the Battle of Caer Caradoc and the Battle of Mona. [140], Macedon began to encroach on territory claimed by several other Greek city states in 200 BC and these pleaded for help from their newfound ally Rome. Early in his reign, Servius Tullius warred against Veii and the Etruscans. [331] However, Cassius Dio marks the wider imperial decline as beginning in 180 AD with the ascension of Commodus to the throne,[332] a judgement with which Gibbon concurred,[333] and Matyszak states that "the rot ... had become established long before" even that.[332]. In this war, the Parthian city of Seleucia on the Tigris was destroyed and the palace at the capital Ctesiphon was burned to the ground by Avidius Cassius in 164 AD. The second consular army duly defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC[156][158] and the Macedonians, lacking the reserve of the Romans and with King Perseus captured,[159] duly capitulated, ending the Third Macedonian War.[160]. The triumvirate expired on the last day of 33 BC and was not renewed in law and in 31 BC, war began again. The new war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power,[93] forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. However, it took two further defeats at the Battle of Nicaea later that year and the Battle of Issus the following year, for Niger to be destroyed. [82] Facing unacceptably heavy losses with each encounter with the Roman army, and failing to find further allies in Italy, Pyrrhus withdrew from the peninsula and campaigned in Sicily against Carthage,[83] abandoning his allies to deal with the Romans.[73]. He took the wealthy town of Suessa Pometia, with the spoils of which he commenced the erection of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus which his father had vowed. While Caesar was fighting against Vercingetorix in Gaul, Pompey proceeded with a legislative agenda for Rome that revealed that he was at best ambivalent towards Caesar[224] and perhaps now covertly allied with Caesar's political enemies. Her death led to partial reconciliation between Octavian and Antony who went on to crush the army of Sextus Pompeius, the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate, in the naval Battle of Naulochus. At the start of the 5th century, the pressure on Rome's western borders was growing intense. [339] Several succeeding generals avoided battling usurpers for the throne by being murdered by their own troops before battle could commence. Perhaps unintentionally[51] the Romans found themselves not just in conflict with the Senones, but their primary target. They were beaten again in 298 AD at the battles of Lingones and Vindonissa but fifty years later they were resurgent again, making incursions in 356 AD at the Battle of Reims,[324] in 357 AD at the Battle of Strasbourg,[325] in 367 AD at the Battle of Solicinium and in 378 AD at Battle of Argentovaria. [141] A treaty was drawn up between Rome and Macedon at Phoenice in 205 BC which promised Rome a small indemnity,[125] formally ending the First Macedonian War. Brutus also committed suicide shortly afterwards. [142], Macedon began to encroach on territory claimed by several other Greek city states in 200 BC and these pleaded for help from their newfound ally Rome. Its chronicles, military and otherwise, document the city's very foundation to its eventual demise. [143] Rome gave Philip an ultimatum that he must submit Macedonia to being essentially a Roman province. 194 BCE. This fear drove a group of senators naming themselves The Liberators to assassinate him in 44 BC. [199] After the Roman admiral Marcus Antonius Creticus (father of the triumvir Marcus Antonius) failed to clear the pirates to the satisfaction of the Roman authorities, Pompey was nominated his successor as commander of a special naval task force to campaign against them. [99], Despite being defeated on African soil, with their newfound naval abilities, the Romans roundly beat the Carthaginians in naval battle again – largely through the tactical innovations of the Roman fleet[87] – at the Battle of the Aegates Islands and leaving Carthage without a fleet or sufficient coin to raise one. Unable to take the city by force of arms, Tarquin had his son, Sextus Tarquinius, infiltrate the city, gain the trust of its people and command of its army. [259] Following a general uprising[260][261] in which the Britons sacked Colchester,[262] St Albans[263] and London,[263][264] the Romans suppressed the rebellion in the Battle of Watling Street[265][266] and went on to push as far north as central Scotland in the Battle of Mons Graupius. During the reign of the Tetrarchy, emperors Diocletian and Galerius brought a decisive conclusion to the war, sacking Ctesiphon in 299 AD and expanding the Roman eastern frontier dramatically with the Treaty of Nisibis. Philip, unsurprisingly, refused and, after initial internal reluctance for further hostilities,[142] Rome declared war against Philip in the Second Macedonian War. The Parthian capital Ctesiphon was sacked by the Roman army, and the northern half of Mesopotamia was restored to Rome. The Roman army, camped outside Ardea, welcomed Lucius Junius Brutus as their new leader, and expelled the king's sons. 214 BCE - 205 BCE. The Gauls, under their chieftain Brennus, defeated the Roman army of around 15,000 troops[51] and proceeded to pursue the fleeing Romans back to Rome itself and partially sacked the town[54][55] before being either driven off[52][56][57] or bought off.[51][53]. Successive emperors Valens and Theodosius I also defeated usurpers in, respectively, the Battle of Thyatira, and the battles of the Save and the Frigidus. 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